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Motor Speech Disorders

These are caused by an inability to execute the motor movements needed for specific speech sound production. Such disorders include apraxia and dysarthria.

Tongue Thrusting

The habit of thrusting the tongue forward against the teeth or between teeth while swallowing. This constant pressure of the tongue will force the teeth out of alignment.

Voice Disorders

Characterized by the speaking voice being too high, low, hoarse, breathy or nasal.

Alternative and Augmentative Communication

These include all forms of communication (other than oral speech) that are used to express thoughts, needs, wants, and ideas, including facial expressions, gestures, symbols, pictures, and writing. People with severe speech or language problems rely on AAC to supplement existing speech or replace speech that is not functional.

Common Types of Speech Therapy Needs

Articulation and Phonological Disorders

These involve problems in making speech sounds. Speech sounds can be substituted, omitted, added or changed. These errors make it difficult for an individual to be understood.


The flow of speech is interrupted by blocking, repetition or hesitation.

Cognitive Disorders

Common in those who have suffered a head injury or stroke. Either condition can affect memory, the ability to think clearly, reasoning and problem-solving skills.

Language Disorders

Difficulty producing and/or comprehending language adequately to communicate. Vocabulary can be limited, and speech may be characterized by grammatical and syntactical errors. These include problems related to expressive language, receptive language and pragmatic language.

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